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19th NAM Summit |

19th NAM Summit

Context

∙ The 19th Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) Summit was held in Uganda’s capital, Kampala.

Key discussions at the summit

∙ Israel-Hamas war: The leaders of NAM countries have denounced Israel’s offensive in Gaza and demanded an immediate ceasefire during the summit.

∙ India urged establishing a free Palestinian state and asked for a two-state solution where the Palestinian people can live within a secure border.

∙ India’s “Vishwa Mitra” initiative: India emphasized its role as a friend to the world, or “Vishwa Mitra” to global solidarity and cooperation in his address.

What is Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)?

∙ NAM is an alliance of developing nations that refuses to identify with any major superpower during the Cold War.

∙ History: It has its origins in the 1955 Bandung conference in Indonesia during which representatives from 29 Asian and African countries, including many newly independent states that had been colonized for years, discussed common concerns.

∙ NAM was established and held its first conference in 1961 in Belgrade, the capital of Yugoslavia.

∙ Founders: The movement’s founders are President Sukarno of Indonesia, Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana, and President Josip Tito of Yugoslavia.

∙ Secretariat: NAM does not have a permanent secretariat or a formal founding charter, act, or treaty. After the United Nations, NAM is the second-largest grouping of nations.

∙ Members: Currently, NAM membership consists of 120 countries: 53 from Africa, 39 from Asia, 26 from Latin America and the Caribbean, and two from Europe. It also includes the non-UN member state of Palestine, and 17 other observer countries.

Challenges faced by NAM in today’s world

∙ Changing Geopolitical Dynamics: The geopolitical landscape continues to evolve, with emerging powers and shifting alliances. NAM is facing it challenging to navigate these changes.

∙ Human Rights: Issues related to human rights and governance like Crisis in Gaza have gained prominence on the international stage. It is difficult to balance the diverse political systems while addressing concerns related to democracy, human rights abuses, and good governance.

∙ Internal Differences: The NAM consisted of countries with diverse political systems, economic structures, and cultural backgrounds. Solving internal differences and maintaining cohesion within the movement is an ongoing challenge.

Relevance of NAM today

∙ Address economic Challenges: After the Cold War, there is still an economic divide between developed and developing countries. NAM has significant relevance in today’s world as the movement now shifts from a political concept to an economic one.

∙ To ensure World Peace: The movement plays a key role in maintaining world peace and preserving the independence of every nation is equally relevant. It acts as a catalyst to foster cooperation between South nations.

∙ Development of nations: It also raises key issues of economic, political, and social development to achieve the desired results of moving from developing to developed nations.

Way ahead

∙ Despite these challenges, the Non-Aligned Movement has remained a forum for cooperation and dialogue among its member nations, contributing to diplomatic efforts, conflict resolution, and the promotion of peace and development.

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